# Wave Function Based Embedding (EWF)¶

This introduces the `EWF`

class to perform a more generalized wave function based quantum embedding that
improves on DMET for *ab initio* systems, as presented in Phys. Rev. X 12, 011046 [1].

## Water Molecule¶

An embedded wave function calculation of a simple water molecule can be performed with the following code:

```
1import pyscf
2import pyscf.gto
3import pyscf.scf
4import pyscf.cc
5import vayesta
6import vayesta.ewf
7
8
9mol = pyscf.gto.Mole()
10mol.atom = """
11O 0.0000 0.0000 0.1173
12H 0.0000 0.7572 -0.4692
13H 0.0000 -0.7572 -0.4692
14"""
15mol.basis = 'cc-pVDZ'
16mol.output = 'pyscf.txt'
17mol.build()
18
19# Hartree-Fock
20mf = pyscf.scf.RHF(mol)
21mf.kernel()
22
23# Embedded CCSD
24emb = vayesta.ewf.EWF(mf, bath_options=dict(threshold=1e-6))
25emb.kernel()
26
27# Reference full system CCSD:
28cc = pyscf.cc.CCSD(mf)
29cc.kernel()
30
31print("E(HF)= %+16.8f Ha" % mf.e_tot)
32print("E(CCSD)= %+16.8f Ha" % cc.e_tot)
33print("E(Emb. CCSD)[WF]= %+16.8f Ha" % emb.e_tot)
34print("E(Emb. CCSD)[DM]= %+16.8f Ha" % emb.get_dm_energy())
```

There are two main differences in setup compared to the DMET embedding class in the definition of the `EWF`

class (**lines 24–25**).

The keyword argument

`bath_options=dict(threshold=1e-6)`

defines the threshold for the MP2 bath natural orbitals (the variable \(\eta\) in Ref. 1) [2].No fragmentation scheme is explicitly provided, which by default results in the system being fully fragmented into simple atomic fragments as defined by intrinsic atomic orbitals (IAOs). This is equivalent to adding the following lines before calling the embedding kernel method:

```
with emb.iao_fragmentation() as f:
f.add_all_atomic_fragments()
```

which, in turn, is equivalent to

```
with emb.iao_fragmentation() as f:
for atom in range(mol.natm):
f.add_atomic_fragment(atom)
```

Other fragmentations schemes can still be used, but have to be specified manually.

## Cubic Boron Nitride (cBN)¶

In this example we calculate cubic boron nitride (Zinc Blende structure):

Note

The basis set, auxiliary (density-fitting) basis set, and **k**-point sampling in this example are much too small
for accurate results and only chosen for demonstration.

```
1import numpy as np
2import pyscf
3import pyscf.pbc
4import pyscf.pbc.scf
5import pyscf.pbc.cc
6import vayesta
7import vayesta.ewf
8
9
10cell = pyscf.pbc.gto.Cell()
11a = 3.615
12cell.atom = 'B 0 0 0 ; N %f %f %f' % (a/4, a/4, a/4)
13cell.a = np.asarray([
14 [a/2, a/2, 0],
15 [0, a/2, a/2],
16 [a/2, 0, a/2]])
17cell.basis = 'sto-6g'
18cell.output = 'pyscf.out'
19cell.build()
20
21# Hartree-Fock with k-points
22kmesh = [2,2,2]
23kpts = cell.make_kpts(kmesh)
24mf = pyscf.pbc.scf.KRHF(cell, kpts)
25mf = mf.density_fit(auxbasis='sto-6g')
26mf.kernel()
27
28# Full system CCSD
29cc = pyscf.pbc.cc.KCCSD(mf)
30cc.kernel()
31
32# Embedded calculation will automatically fold the k-point sampled mean-field to the supercell
33# solve_lambda=True is required, if density-matrix is needed!
34emb = vayesta.ewf.EWF(mf, bath_options=dict(threshold=1e-6), solver_options=dict(solve_lambda=True))
35emb.kernel()
36
37print("E(HF)= %+16.8f Ha" % mf.e_tot)
38print("E(Emb. CCSD)= %+16.8f Ha" % emb.e_tot)
39print("E(CCSD)= %+16.8f Ha" % cc.e_tot)
40
41# One-body density matrix in the supercell AO-basis
42dm1 = emb.make_rdm1(ao_basis=True)
43# Population analysis (q: charge, s: spin)
44# Possible options for local_orbitals: 'mulliken', 'lowdin', 'iao+pao', or custom N(AO) x N(AO) coefficient matrix
45# orbital_resolved=True is used to print orbital resolved (rather than only atom resolved) analysis
46emb.pop_analysis(dm1, local_orbitals='iao+pao', orbital_resolved=True)
```

In **line 34** the setup of the embedding class is performed in the same way as for molecules.
Vayesta will detect if the mean field object `mf`

has **k**-points defined. If these are found, then
the **k**-point sampled mean-field will automatically be folded to the \(\Gamma\)-point of the equivalent
(in this case \(2\times2\times2\)) Born–von Karman supercell.

Note

Only Monkhorst-pack **k**-point meshes which include the \(\Gamma\)-point are currently supported.

Note that instantiating the embedding class with a **k**-point sampled mean-field object
will automatically add the translational symmetry to the symmetry group stored in `emb.symmetry`

.
This assumes that the user will only define fragments within the original primitive unit cell,
which are then copied throughout the supercell using the translational symmetry (and this symmetry will be exploited
to avoid the cost of solving embedded fragments which are symmetrically equivalent to others).
For calculations of fragments across multiple primitive cells or where the primitive cell has not been explicitly
enlarged to encompass the full fragment space,
the translational symmetry should be removed by calling `emb.symmetry.clear_translations()`

or overwritten via `emb.symmetry.set_translations(nimages)`

, as demonstrated in
for the 1D Hubbard model here.

Performing the embedding in the supercell allows for optimal utilization of the locality of electron correlation,
as the embedding problems are only restricted to have the periodicity of the supercell, rather than the **k**-point sampled
primitive cell.
Properties, such as density-matrix calculated in **line 42**, will recover the full, primitive cell symmetry,
since they are obtained from a summation over all symmetry equivalent fragments in the supercell.
This is confirmed by the population analysis, which shows that the boron atom 2 has the same population than
boron atom 0, despite being part of a different primitive cell within the supercell:

```
Population analysis
-------------------
0 B: q= 0.17325874 s= 0.00000000
0 0 B 1s = 1.98971008
1 0 B 2s = 0.76417671
2 0 B 2px = 0.69095149
3 0 B 2py = 0.69095149
4 0 B 2pz = 0.69095149
1 N: q= -0.17325874 s= 0.00000000
5 1 N 1s = 1.99053993
6 1 N 2s = 1.17403392
7 1 N 2px = 1.33622830
8 1 N 2py = 1.33622830
9 1 N 2pz = 1.33622830
2 B: q= 0.17325874 s= 0.00000000
10 2 B 1s = 1.98971008
11 2 B 2s = 0.76417671
12 2 B 2px = 0.69095149
13 2 B 2py = 0.69095149
14 2 B 2pz = 0.69095149
3 N: q= -0.17325874 s= 0.00000000
15 3 N 1s = 1.99053993
16 3 N 2s = 1.17403392
17 3 N 2px = 1.33622830
18 3 N 2py = 1.33622830
19 3 N 2pz = 1.33622830
...
```